Pit Lakes Database

Welcome to the INAP Pit Lakes Database

Please note that this site is still under construction.


Desert Mount Pit Lake, Utah, USA
Picture taken by Devin Castendyk

The purpose of this database is to allow comparison of pit lake water quality versus ore body type, climate, and geology. This database can also be
used for order of magnitude estimates of anticipated pit lake water quality (in many cases offering more accurate estimates than complex and costly
numeric models), to refine geo-environmental (conceptual) models for ore deposits and for the calibration of numeric models.

The Database Includes The Following Information:

  • Mean lake chemistry
  • Lake Age
  • Surface area, depth and volume
  • Climate data (particularly annual precipitation and pan evaporation data)
  • Ore body type
  • Lithologies exposed on pit walls (percentages if available)
  • Sulfide abundance (such as mean, median and/or maximum values)
  • Significant surface outflows or inflows (if any)
  • Treatments performed on lake (if any)
  • Special circumstances (such as significant waste rock or underground working
    drainage into pit, intentional discharge of ARD or leachate into pit)
  • Simple limnology (permanently stratified, annual turnover etc.)
  • Identification of terminal or flow-through groundwater conditions (if known)

Where We Obtained the Data

Data for this database was obtained from:
State and Federal Agencies (Type 1)
Published Pit Lake Data (Type 2)
Internal Mining Reports (Type 3)


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  Created by Emmon Johnson and Dr. Devin Castendyk - SUNY College at Oneonta
Funded by the International Network For Acid Prevention
  SUNY Oneonta    INAP